Friday, May 22, 2020
Criminal and Delinquent Subcultures Crime and delinquency subculture reflects on culture patterns surrounding crime and juvenile delinquency. It is created not only by individuals, but as one culture, the American culture. Subculture is derivative of, but different from some larger referential cultures. This term is used to share systems of norms, values, individual, groups and the cultural system itself. Criminal or delinquent subcultures indicate systems of norms, values, or interest that support criminal or delinquent behavior. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s why many juveniles are linked to the same criminal acts as youngsters. They tend to follow a pattern that is expected in their age group, like stealing. Young people experience their opportunity asÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦According to a article I read by Short, he stated that because subculture typically consist of collections of normative orders- rules and practices related to a common value, delinquents that affiliate themselves in gangs are oriented around a single valu e (such as being Ã¢â¬Å"machoÃ¢â¬ ) are tended to act that way( p. 36). He also states that individuals who are associated with a particular subculture tend also to be associated with other subcultures. Some members of delinquent gangs may be the sole carriers of a particular subculture in a particular location, and some are shared. For example conflict subcultures are shared by rival fighting gangs among whom individual and group status involves values related to defense of turf and reputation and norms loyal of these values. Some subcultures oriented to theft and other forms of property crime which they are connected with a particular group. Some property crime involves more organizing and planning in order to succeed. Other crimes such as mugging may involve only one person who shares the same subculture as the larger group. In an article by Terry WilliamÃ¢â¬â¢s it states that delinquent subcultures contain elements of both youth and adult cultures. It also stated that to speak of youth culture is to symbolize a subculture of the larger adult-dominated and institutionally defined culture (1989). Many of criminal subculture shares a symbolic relationship with their customs, manl y the peopleShow MoreRelatedDelinquent Youth Subcultures1636 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesÃ¯ » ¿Delinquent Youth Subcultures A subculture is an offshoot of referential cultural but in essence very different from culture. The term subculture is commonly employed to signify shared systems of common values, norms and interests that distinguish certain people and societies from others. Thus, criminal or delinquent subcultures indicate systems of standards, morals and interests that endorse criminal or delinquent behavior. The numerous activities categorized in law as criminal are related toRead MoreYouth Deviance Essay1376 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagespeople and their membership in deviant subcultures or gangs. Deviance is associated with young people today and is rapidly on the increase within the street and school environment. Young deviants are engaging in gang membership and subcultures with a means of social belonging, social interest and ethnic identity. There are several sociological and subcultural theories which deem to explain deviance. Some of the theories are functionalist pretentious that criminal activity is motivated by economicRead MoreBiological Determinism, Subculture Crime And Conflict Theories1652 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesdeterminism, subculture crime and conflict theories. Biological determinism One of the best known application of biological determinism in relation to crime is from Cesare Lombroso who Ã¢â¬Å"Viewed criminals as suffering from a depravity caused by an atavistic reversion:Ã¢â¬ In other words, through a regression to the early form of life found in Humans ape-like ancestors. Ã¢â¬Å"Lombroso believed that if a person had five or more stigmas then they will likely be atavistic and were born a criminalÃ¢â¬ . A stigmataRead MoreTheory of Delinquency1458 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesfocus on subcultures, i.e. groups within wider society with norms, lifestyles and values distinct from those of mainstream society. The focus in sub-cultural theories is on delinquency. In the UK, a preoccupation with the idea that future crime was determined by juvenile delinquency came about as a result of the 1895 UK Gladstone Committee, wherein research focused on gang culture among young males (aged 16-25). Deviance is perceived by sub-cultural theorists as a product of a subculture of delinquencyRead MoreWhy People Commit Crime?1417 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages2012). Others like Albert Cohen, in his book Ã¢â¬Å"Delinquent Boys,Ã¢â¬ theorize that delinquent youth subcultures emerge when young men in the lower-class, feel the strain of not being able to measure up to middle class expectations. These theories, and others influenced by similar beliefs, support biases that exist within our society, media, and even law enforcement. These biases have consequences for youth in the lower class who are labelled as Ã¢â¬Ëdelinquents.Ã¢â¬â¢ They can also result in the ignorance ofRead MoreThe Theories Of Crime And Criminal Behavior1493 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesdifferent criminological theories and how they can explain crime and criminal behaviour differently. There is no universal definition of crime that gives a simple and straight forward definition. Crime is a constantly changing idea that changes due to the persons perceptions of what they would classify as Ã¢â¬ËcrimeÃ¢â¬â¢ and what is regarded as criminal behaviour (crime and criminology). There is also no straightforward way of explaining what criminal behaviour is, as it can be something that breaks the law. HoweverRead MoreExamine the Relationship Between Deviance and Labeling1521 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesand labelling is partly based on the view of the stereotypical criminal. This stereotype suggests a white, working class, male as a deviant, making them a Ã¢â¬ËsuspectÃ¢â¬â¢ before theyÃ¢â¬â¢ve even committed a deviant act. However, whether an act is labelled as deviant depends on who commits the act, where and when itÃ¢â¬â¢s committed, and how it is interpreted Ã¢â¬â and the label the individual is given as a result. Functionalists label the typical criminal as a young, working class male. They then produce theories basedRead MoreOutline and Evaluate Functionalist Explanation of Crime.1442 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesstatus in mainstream society. They react to this by forming their own set of values- a delinquent subculture. This subculture is based on rebelling the accepted form of behaviour, for example, stealing replaces hard work. This gives the working-class youth an opportunity to achieve some status in their peer group which they are denied in the wider society. Cohen identifies elements of revenge in this subculture, to get back at the society that has denied them status, for example, joy-riding, vandalismRead MoreAnomie and General Strain Theories of Crime Essay1267 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesStrain Theory Albert Cohen developed his own version of the Anomie Strain Theory using MertonÃ¢â¬â¢s framework to explain the delinquent subculture of lower-class males. Cohen argues that strain results from the failure to achieve status rather than the failure to achieve monetary success. (Paternoster, Bachman 2001) Cohen identified this male lower class as this Ã¢â¬Å"delinquent subcultureÃ¢â¬ . Richard Cloward and Lloyd Ohlin also expanded MertonÃ¢â¬â¢s anomie strain theory to develop their own version Ã¢â¬Å"In their bookRead MoreThe Cultural Theory Of Crime And Violence1515 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesDefined, a subculture is a culture that exists within the main dominant culture of a society. Therefore, members of a subculture will have different norms and values to those in the rest of society, which in turn could lead to them being seen as deviant because of this. Youth subcultures provide members with an identity that sits outside of that assigned by social foundations such as family, school, home and work. Participants of a subculture often make people aware of their membership by making
Sunday, May 10, 2020
The Unexplained Puzzle Into Essay Topics for College Application Uncovered Definitions of Essay Topics for College Application Thus, the essay is supposed to coincide with the applicant's qualities and interests in order for it to boost the possibilities of admission. Your essay is the opportunity to invigorate your application. It should reveal your personality and your best assets. Based on extensive counselor feedback, the current essay prompts provide great flexibility for applicants to inform their exclusive stories in their very own voice. Write to be viewed in our society for quite a few years to come in that school is much less evident in the story. Say what you do to create your life better. Topics like death and divorce are cautionary as they can be exceedingly tough to write about. One of the most difficult features of college life is finances. There's indeed a wonderful similarity between a college application and an excellent story. Writing college essay may be the most challenging portion of the entire procedure of application for a college. Writing the college application essay is a difficult gig. Before you're able to select a compelling essay topic, first you have to know why there's an essay in the very first spot. It is essential to answer the essay question. The essay is just one of the important approaches you're able to distinguish yourself. Your essay needs to be distinctive and interesting. Bridget's essay is quite strong, but there continue to be a couple little things that could be made better. At the exact same instance you must also be absolutely sure you've answered the question asked in your essay. In order to be noticed, it's important to understand that there are several essay topics which are cliche and overused. Once you have decided on a topic that appeals to you, you should concentrate on essay writing. Essay Topics for College Application - the Story Application essays about challenges reveal how you respond to difficulty to folks who are quite interested in how you are going to manage the subsequent four years by yourself. Moreover, there ought to be a warranty period for you to make sure in the event of any issues being noticed by your teacher in the work it is going to be revised. Describe some tasks you have accomplished over the last two years that do not have any connection to academic studies. The procedure can help make certain you continue to b e on the appropriate track. Suddenly, you're in a totally new situation, and will need to do something, but you need zero idea what. Think of your feelings about the scenario, how it affected you and what you learned from the experience instead of just simply recalling the circumstance or the individual you lost. Opt for a distinctive topic that others may not think of, and whatever you select, make sure that you know a lot about it! A good deal of students make the error of attempting to second-guess what the admissions folks wish to hear in an essay, and after that write about something which isn't actually central to their interests and passions. The Downside Risk of Essay Topics for College Application By avoiding the topics listed previously'll ensure your essay helps instead of hurts your odds of admission. You must look for a topic you could write about most passionately and effectively. So you don't actually need to obtain a topic! Write freely topics select a prompt later. You also need to constantly review your paper, to make sure your topic drives with what it is that you are writing about. When you discover that topic, it's about writing and rewriting. Possessing factored the above strategies and develop a great topic, it is the right time to start the writing process. Who knowsthe response to that question may be the foundation for your admission essay. The application text ought to be effective to go into the college. More frequently than not, deadlines for submitting applications are almost always short which makes many prospective applicants worry they will not have the capability to submit their sample essay for MBA application punctually. There might be personal information which you want considered as a member of your admissions application. If you prefer, you can application on one specific subject. Persuade the admission officers that you are really worthy for admission. Don't forget that the objective of a college admissions essay is to aid admissions officers get to know you. It is very important to capture the interest of the admission tutors irrespective of how strict they may appear to be. College admissions essays aren't rocket science, but there are a range of steps that students may take to assemble the most accurate and compelling essays that will assist their odds of gaining admission to their top-choice colleges. Explain your commitments, and you're going to be the type of student colleges find immensely attractive. Some students and counselors squawked, but I feel the word-count ceiling is an excellent thing.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Self-fulfilling Prophesy: A Lesson to be Learned Have you ever had an assumption or belief about someone come true? That is what defines a Self-fulfilling Prophesy. That is, when a personÃ¢â¬â¢s expectations, thoughts, or beliefs manifest in such a way that in return they become true. These preconceived notions about other people influence how you act toward them and in return this will evoke a response from that person. We will write a custom essay sample on Self Fulfilling Prophesy: A Lesson to be Learned or any similar topic only for you Order Now This response then provides proof of the original expectations. Picking a college roommate can be a tricky thing to do. It eems that I have heard more horror stories about roommates than good stories. This may be attributed to the fact that people are more prone to talk about their problems and negative situations rather than their positive ones. However, my freshman roommate provided me with one heck of an experience. I met Dylan in high school. He attended an opposing school only thirty minutes away from mine. We recognized each other from the basketball court and numerous track events. We soon became friends when we were introduced at a high school party through a utual friend. As we became closer friends we both decided to attend Mississippi State University. I had lined up a roommate for freshman year with someone I grew up with, however due to a scholarship, he decided to attend a different school and left me without a roommate. When discussing this with Dylan, I was not aware that he did not have a roommate and we quickly decided to room together. Dylan and I had not known each other very long and even though he seemed to be a good friend and fit as a roommate, I still was weary of living with him. I had no specific reason to believe that we wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t get along but I still could not shake the feeling that things would not go swimmingly. After moving into our dorm, it did not take long for our friendship to take a drastic turn. During fall recruitment into the Greek system, Dylan and I Joined two separate fraternities. It wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t long after Bid Day that Dylan dropped out of his fraternity. From then on it seemed as if he resented me for Joining a fraternity even though we had gone through recruitment together. He started anging out with an unruly crowd of people and it was not long after that he started neglecting his priorities. I eventually found out that the crowd he was hanging out with was known to dabble in various drugs and everything I did to help Just put us at greater odds. He began to get really sloppy by leaving his clothes and trash everywhere in our small living quarters. He seemed to have no regard for my belongings, or me for that matter. He was sleeping all day, staying out all night, and eating all my food when I was out of the room. When Christmas break came around he had a combined 67 absences in his classes and was carrying a 1. 2 GPA. I was looking for a polite way to tell him we needed to find new roommates when he called me a few days prior to Christmas. He told me that he was going to withdraw from the university and take a break from school. The experience I had first semester of my freshman year is a prime example of a self-fulfilling prophecy. I had a preconceived notion that Dylan and I would not get along as roommates and that notion came to How to cite Self Fulfilling Prophesy: A Lesson to be Learned, Papers
Wednesday, April 29, 2020
Then There Was Nine Housed between the Library of Congress and the Capitol stands the home of United States Supreme Court which is described as "the greatest tribunal in the world, one of the three great elements of our national government." Jeffrey Toobin's book "The Nine" takes an intimate view behind the curtain of the United States Supreme Court and the Judges that are chosen to rule on the law of the land. The following looks into Toobin's definitions of judicial activism, restraint, and independence, how his bias tends to affect his independent analysis of the justices, and what kind of philosophy I would adopt if I were a judge. Judicial activism is defined as court rulings that are made based more on the personal and or political views of the judge or judges presiding over the present case. It is also an attempt in the judicial ruling to rewrite legislation based on the political ideology of the magistrate. The courts have been set up to settle the disputes based on the law while using specifically defined powers. Some may believe that "constitutional law had taken some profoundly wrong turns and they were not shy about demanding that the courts take the lead in restoring the rightful order."(p. 17) Judicial activism can manifest itself as a judge that is basically legislating from the bench. Judicial restraint is characterized more as judges using self-discipline to limit their views whether personal or political when deciding a case. It is the duty of the justices to use constraint when ruling against laws if they truly find that there is evidence that it is truly unconstitutional. The justices must not infuse their beliefs whether personal or political when considering at a case. They must not make laws but interpret them based strictly on constitutional grounds and direct interpretation of the law. Justice Sandra Day O'Connor believed and fought for judicial independence. She stated, "it is the kernel of the rule of law, giving the citizenry confidence that the laws will be fairly and equally applied. (p.291) This "independence" allowed decisions to be made despite interests from the other government branches. This notion is keeping the judiciary branch from being influenced by the other branches, thus maintains the separation of powers. The court justices are appointed; therefore they do not have to worry about reelection for their position. Their tenure is for life, so they do not have to worry about being "politically correct' in their decisions, they must just abide by the Constitution. The President of the United States nominates his judicial candidates based on how they align with his beliefs. This does not necessarily ensure that the justice, once approved, will rule along the same belief as the president. Take for instance Sandra Day O'Connor; she was nominated by the conservative President Ronald Reagan. In her first abortion case, she voted to "uphold the restrictions but never committing to an outright reversal of Roe." She had the opportunity to side with the conservative majority and thus reverse Roe v. Wade, but she took a stand. "A stray observation from a separate opinion by O'Connor had become the law of the land on the most contentious constitutional issue of her time." (p. 69) O'Connor borrowed the phrase "undue burden," which essentially "recast Roe v. Wade which left the right to an abortion. A conservative President's nominee did not follow his beliefs on abortion. In reading "The Nine" by Jeffrey Toobin, one can observe his bias toward the liberal left. Mr. Toobin is a liberal pundit. He demonstrates his bias continually by examining the possibility of the Conservative right taking over and maintaining control of the Court. During the W. Bush years, Toobin stated that the administration and supporters did not want a balanced court, but control. He spoke of the Evangelicals as a religious group that had influence with some of the President's decisions. Jeffrey Toobin examines the pivotal case of Roe v. Wade. His hypothesis is that if a Republican President is granted the opportunity to make appointments to the Supreme Court that Roe will be overturned and abortion will be outlawed. His theory was negated when he used David Souter as an example.
Friday, March 20, 2020
Laws Regulating Federal Lobbyists In public opinion polls, lobbyists rank somewhere between pond scum and nuclear waste. In every election, politicians vow never to be Ã¢â¬Å"bought outÃ¢â¬ by lobbyists, but often do. Briefly, lobbyists get paid by businesses or special interest groups to win the votes and support of members of the U.S. Congress and state legislatures.Ã Indeed, to many people, lobbyists and what they do represent the main cause of corruption in federal government. But while lobbyists and their influence in Congress sometimes seem to be out of control, they really do have to follow laws. In fact, lots of them.Ã Background: The Laws of Lobbying While each state legislature has created its own set of laws regulating lobbyists, there are two specific federal laws regulating the actions of lobbyists targeting the U.S. Congress.Ã Recognizing the need to make the lobbying process more transparent and accountable to the American people, Congress enacted the Lobbying Disclosure Act (LDA) of 1995. Under this law, all lobbyists dealing with the U.S. Congress are required to register with both the Clerk of the House of Representatives and the Secretary of the Senate. Within 45 days of becoming employed or retained to lobby on behalf of a new client, the lobbyist must register his or her agreement with that client with the Secretary of the Senate and the Clerk of the House. As of 2015, more than 16,000 federal lobbyists were registered under the LDA. However, merely registering with Congress was not enough to prevent some lobbyists from abusing the system to the point of triggering total disgust for their profession. Jack Abramoff Lobbying Scandal Spurred New, Tougher Law Public hatred for lobbyists and lobbying reached its peak in 2006 when Jack Abramoff, working as a lobbyist for the rapidly growing Indian casino industry, pleaded guilty to charges of bribing members of Congress, some of whom also ended up in prison as a result of the scandal. In the aftermath of the Abramoff scandal, Congress in 2007 passed the Honest Leadership and Open Government Act (HLOGA) fundamentally changing the ways in which lobbyists were allowed to interact with members of Congress. As a result of HLOGA, lobbyists are prohibited from Ã¢â¬Å"treatingÃ¢â¬ Congress members or their staff to things like meals, travel, or entertainment events. Under HLOGA, lobbyists must file Lobbying Disclosure (LD) reports during each year revealing all contributions they made to campaign events for members of Congress or other expenditures of efforts they make that might in any way personally benefit a member of Congress. Specifically, the required reports are: The LD-2 report showing all lobbying activities for each organization they are registered to represent must be filed quarterly; andThe LD-203 report disclosing certain political Ã¢â¬Å"contributionsÃ¢â¬ to politicians must be filed twice a year. What Can Lobbyists Ã¢â¬ËContributeÃ¢â¬â¢ to Politicians? Lobbyists are allowed to contribute money to federal politicians under the same campaign contribution limits placed on individuals. During the current (2016) federal election cycle, lobbyists cannot give more than $2,700 to any candidate and $5,000 to any Political Action Committees (PAC) in each election. Of course, the most coveted Ã¢â¬Å"contributionsÃ¢â¬ lobbyists make to politicians are the money and votes of the members of the industries and organizations they work for. In 2015 for example, the nearly 5 million members of the National Rifle Association gave a combined $3.6 million to federal politicians opposed to tighter gun control policy. In addition, lobbyist must file quarterly reports listing their clients, the fees they received from each client and the issues on which they lobbied for each client. Lobbyists who fail to comply with these laws face could face both civil and criminal penalties as determined by the Office of the U.S. Attorney. Penalties for Violation of the Lobbying Laws The Secretary of the Senate and the Clerk of the House, along with U.S. AttorneyÃ¢â¬â¢s Office (USAO) are responsible for ensuring that lobbyists comply with the LDA activity disclosure law. Should they detect a failure to comply, the Secretary of the Senate or the Clerk of the House notifies the lobbyist in writing. Should the lobbyist fail to provide an adequate response, the Secretary of the Senate or the Clerk of the House refers the case to the USAO. The USAO researches these referrals and sends additional noncompliance notices to the lobbyist, requesting that they file reports or terminate their registration. If USAO does not receive a response after 60 days, it decides whether to pursue a civil or criminal case against the lobbyist. A civil judgment could lead to penalties up to $200,000 for each violation, while a criminal conviction - usually pursued when a lobbyistÃ¢â¬â¢s noncompliance is found to be knowing and corrupt- could lead to a maximum of 5 years in prison. So yes, there are laws for lobbyists, but how many of those lobbyists are really doing the Ã¢â¬Å"right thingÃ¢â¬ by complying with the disclosure laws? GAO Reports on LobbyistsÃ¢â¬â¢ Compliance with the Law In an audit released on March 24, 2016, the Government Accountability Office (GAO) reported that during 2015, Ã¢â¬Å"mostÃ¢â¬ registered federal lobbyists did file disclosure reports that included key data required by the Lobbying Disclosure Act of 1995 (LDA). According to the GAOÃ¢â¬â¢s audit, 88% of lobbyists properly filed initial LD-2 reports as required by the LDA. Of those properly filed reports, 93% included adequate documentation on income and expenses. About 85% of lobbyists properly filed their required year-end LD-203 reports disclosing campaign contributions. During 2015, federal lobbyists filed 45,565 LD-2 disclosure reports with $5,000 or more in lobbying activity, and 29,189 LD-203 reports of federal political campaign contributions. The GAO did find that, as in years past, some lobbyists continued to properly disclose payments for certain Ã¢â¬Å"covered positions,Ã¢â¬ as paid congressional internships or certain executive agency positions provided as part of the lobbyistsÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬Å"contributionsÃ¢â¬ to lawmakers. GAOÃ¢â¬â¢s audit estimated that about 21% of all LD-2 reports filed by lobbyists in 2015 failed to disclose payments for at least one such covered position, despite the fact that most lobbyists told the GAO that they found the rules regarding reporting covered positions as being Ã¢â¬Å"very easyÃ¢â¬ or Ã Ã¢â¬Å"somewhat easyÃ¢â¬ to understand.
Wednesday, March 4, 2020
6 Budget-Friendly Ways to Get Writing Help for Your Paper of Any Complexity 6 Budget-Friendly Ways to Get Writing Help for Your Paper of Any Complexity ItÃ¢â¬â¢s no secret that college can be extremely expensive, and most college students are on tight budget. You may not afford writing help for a high price, but weÃ¢â¬â¢ve created a list of six budget-friendly options. Here are several ways to get the qualitative help you need without breaking the bank. 1.Ã Pay for Advisory Services Only The cheapest option for academic writing help is to pay only for general guidance on your writing, rather than for an entire paper. This service can include brainstorming a good topic, organizing, structuring your essay and proofreading/editing your completed draft. Such writing helpers can give you the extra boost you need to write an excellent paper on your own. 2. Pay an Older Student to Write Your Paper Many senior college students write papers for younger ones to make extra cash. Ask around your college campus to see if there are students available to perform such a service. While you are searching for writer help, make sure you are able to get opinion on the quality of this personÃ¢â¬â¢s work. To pay a senior student for the paper is a great chance to save money, as they are likely to charge much less than professional services. 3. Think about Friends Who May Do You a Favor Do you have any friends who are excellent writers? Perhaps they would be generous enough to write a paper for you, or, at least, to offer suggestions and advice. If you are strong in another academic subject, such as mathematics, you may provide your mate with Ã¢â¬Å"friend helpÃ¢â¬ in exchange. Even if your friend wants some money for such a favor, he/she will charge you less than a professional academic writer would. 4. Use a Free Online Library There are several resources on the Internet, such as free online libraries, that provide you with papers on a variety of subjects. These papers can be used as examples to help inspire ideas for your essay. You can also use the sample essay as a model for how to structure your own paper. Such a method does not allow you to get writing help from another person, it just gives you a chance to see how a proficient writer has handled the topic similar to the one you are coping with. 5. Ask Your Professor for Help Of course, your professor is not going to write the paper in your stead, but he/she may offer you valuable advice. Most professors are required to have office hours, the time period, when the professor sits in his/her office so that students can come and ask their questions. Your professor can clarify any questions you have concerning the assignment, as well as he/she can give you tips on how to overcome the obstacles you have faced. Your professor is the one who will assign your grade, so his/her advice can be especially helpful. Moreover, professors are likely to be more generous while grading a student who has taken the initiative to come for advice! 6. Join a Study Group There are many study groups in the universities for students to get together and work on assignments, or answer one anotherÃ¢â¬â¢s questions. See if the class you are writing the paper for has a study group, or try to start one. You and students who are dealing with the papers on the same subject can discuss topic ideas, clarify questions, and even proofread one anotherÃ¢â¬â¢s papers. Getting qualitative writing help does not always put a strain on your finances. Try using one of these six options to help you produce a high-quality paper at a low cost!
Sunday, February 16, 2020
BEHAVIOURAL FINANCE AND MARKET EFFICIENCY - Essay Example Due to the presence of inefficiency within the global market, the sales and profitability of a company is not only affected but also the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to build a more reliable capital asset. Therefore, in response to poor market efficiency, the study on behavioural finance has gained importance back in 1990s2. Using knowledge on behavioural finance, the main causes and underlying drivers of the most recent global financial crisis will be identified and tackled in details. As part of analyzing the factors that has triggered the recent global financial crisis, both behavioural and non-behavioural explanation behind such crisis will be compared and contrast. In relation to the presence of irregularities in the global markets, whether or not Ã¢â¬Å"valueÃ¢â¬ is riskier than Ã¢â¬Å"growthÃ¢â¬ will be answered based on the theory behind the rational risk pricing. 2. Main Causes and Underlying Drivers of the Most Recent Global Financial Crisis 2.1 Non-behavioural Explanatio n behind the Most Recent Global Financial Crisis Next to the Great Depression which occurred back in 1930s, the worst global financial crisis happened between 2007 to 2008 when most of the large-scale financial institutions worldwide were at risks of bankruptcy aside from the sudden fall in the stock markets3. Specifically the U.S. real estate bubble in 2006 had caused serious damages to the status of global financial institutions4, 5. Eventually, the prolonged 2007 to 2008 global financial crisis has somehow contributed to the European sovereign-debt crisis6, 7. This increases the risks wherein most of the largest financial institutions such as the Lehman Brothers had serious problems about their liquidity and bank solvency8. Based on the study of macroeconomics, a lot of potential factors have been considered to be the main drivers behind the most recent global financial crisis. Based on the historical trend in the global financial crisis, one thing that is certain is that increas e in financial imbalances within the world market has something to do with todayÃ¢â¬â¢s global financial crisis9. Likewise, it is also suspected that the growing imbalances in the worldwide capital flows are one of the main reasons behind the recent global financial crisis10, 11, 12, 13. Furthermore, it is also possible that the combination of the increasing imbalances in the flow of capital worldwide and the use of monetary policies have contributed to the development of the recent global financial crisis14, 15. Financial crisis is often characterized by having relatively low levels of national savings, huge fiscal and financial deficits, business bankruptcy and foreclosure, low GDP output, high unemployment rate, and huge trade or current account deficits16. With regards to the continuously increasing global financial imbalances, Merrouche and Nier (2010) explained that the incidence of global financial imbalances is somehow strongly connected with the huge dispersion between a huge net capital flows between two or more different countries and the position of the current account across different countries17. In line with this, a country with excessive inflows of capital can have long-term low interest rates which can influence most investors to search for other investment options as most financial institutions would try other means of maintaining their daily operational costs18, 19. Likewise, excessively high inflows of capital can also significantly reduce the wholesale funding cost of the